Andreas M. Kazamias, Hononary President of A.I.L.A.
Emeritus Profess or of education al policy studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA) and Emeritus Professor of comparative education at the University of Athens (Greece) where he is also a member of the Academy of Athens
Re-inventing Liberal Arts Education: The Educational Imperative in the Knowledge Cosmopolis
We are in the midst of a crisis of massive proportions and grave global significance. No, I do not mean the global economic crisis that began in 2008…No, I mean a crisis that goes largely unnoticed, like a cancer; a crisis that is likely to be, in the long run, far more damaging to the future of democratic self-government: a “world-wide crisis in education…The humanities and the arts are being cut away in both primary/secondary and college/university education in virtually every nation of the world…Indeed what we call the humanistic aspects of science and social science—the imaginative, creative aspect, and the aspect of rigorous critical thought—are also losing ground as nations prefer to pursue short-term profit by the cultivation of the useful and highly applied skills suited to profit-making (Martha Nussbaum, American philosopher and public intellectual, 2010).
Education is not intellectual development alone. It should also develop aesthetic nature and creativity. Education is an effort to make life meaningful. Emphasis on the teaching of poetry, theater, fine arts and music (Rabindranath Tagore, Hindu poet and Nobel laureate in Literature, 1917)
The unexamined life is not worth living for a human beιng (Socrates, ancient Greek philosopher)
This essay purports to be (a) a comparative historical overview of Liberal Arts Education (LAED), a quintessential epistemic element of Western culture and liberal humanistic paideia/education, (b) an examination of the contemporary “crisis in LAED” in the world of globalization and the Knowledge Cosmopolis, and (c) a reinvention of LAED as an educational imperative in the world of globalization and the Knowledge Cosmopolis.
I–Liberal Arts Education (LAED): A comparative historical overview
Liberal Arts Education (LAED) is a historical tradition of educational theory and practice that is traceable in the West to the classical cultures of Greece and Rome. Its roots can be traced to the ancient Greek conception of knowledge and paideia (education/culture) and the Roman humanitas. During its evolution, as DeNicola points out, “it has spawned many diverse conceptions and institutionalized forms, along with numerous theories of curriculum and pedagogy” (DeNicola, 2012, pp. 36-37).
LAED in the ancient world; classical Greek dyadic conception of knowledge and education, viz. liberal vs. banausic (vulgar), liberal arts vs. practical arts, liberal vs. vocational
In Plato’s dialogue Protagoras, Socrates identifies two types of education: one that aims at techne — training for a profession/vocation– and another, that aims at the perfection of the personality, namely, the cultivation of the mind (nous/dianoia) and the soul (psyche) of the individual as a private citizen and a free man (Plato, Protagoras, 312b).
More pertinent for our purposes in this essay, are Aristotle’s views on liberal education. In his Politics, Aristotle averred:
“It is clear that there should be legislation about education, and that education should be a public concern. But we must not forget to consider what constitutes (proper) education…all peoples do not agree as to whether education ought to be conducted more with regard to the intellect / the mind (dianoia) or the character of the soul (ethos tes psyches)” (Aristotle Politics ,Book VIII, 1337a, 35-40—1337b).
According to Aristotle:
“The young must be taught those useful arts that are indispensably necessary; but…they should not be taught all the useful arts, those pursuits that are liberal being kept distinct from those that are illiberal, and that they must participate in such among the useful arts as will not render the person… vulgar [banausos]…an art or a science must be deemed vulgar if it renders the body or soul or mind useless for the actions of virtue… And even with the liberal sciences [eleutheries epistemes]…to devote in them too assiduously …is liable to have the injurious results specified” (Aristotle, Politics, Book VIII, 1337b) .
A liberal art, that Aristotle considered “indispensably necessary” in what “the young must be taught”, was music (mousike) , a term which in ancient Greece connoted not only music but also dance, lyrics and the performance of poetry. In this connection, it could be said that the epistemic scope of LAED, according to Aristotle, was essentially “humanistic paideia/education”. As a liberal art, music, according to the philosopher, is conducive to what may be called the “paideia/ education of the soul”. It increases the students’ intellectual capacity and judgment; it promotes tranquility of the soul, spiritual harmony and order; and it develops ethical/moral character.
LAED in the medieval world:-septem artes liberales: trivium and quadrivium
In its historical evolution, the epistemic scope of LAED expanded in terms of areas of learning or subjects considered as liberal arts. In the medieval world, the epistemic scope of LAED expanded to the septem artes liberales (seven liberal arts) consisting of the trivium (grammar, logic, rhetoric) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy).
The trivium and the quadrivium constituted the academic curriculum/program of studies of the medieval university–also known as stadium generale–in the West. As in the classical Greek world , in the medieval world there was a dyadic conception of knowledge and education, viz. liberal arts vs. practical arts and liberal vs. vocational or professional. LAED referred to knowledge and areas of learning that aimed at the cultivation of general intellectual skills or the development of intellectual and moral excellence rather than at practical, professional or technical skills.
In the medieval world, the areas of knowledge of the trivium, viz. grammar, logic and rhetoric, which connoted an education in the humanities,, constituted a core element of LAED.
LAED in the modern era
In the modern era, the epistemic scope of LAED expanded further in terms of aims/ purposes, areas of knowledge and studies referred to as liberal arts, and theories of curriculum and pedagogy. It has been characterized in various and different ways. To wit:
— LAED refers to studies that produce general knowledge and develop intellectual skills such as critical and reflective reading skills, problem solving skills, effective research skills, ethical decision making skills, and ability to work in a team for purposes of employment and citizenship.
—LAED refers to the areas of learning that cultivate general intellectual skills rather than technical or vocational skills. It refers to education not related to professional, vocational or technical education.
—LAED in some cases, particularly in Europe, is used as a synonym for general, essentially humanistic education, prior to professional training. In Germany, for example, it is synonymous with Humanische Bildung or Allgemeine Bildung, and in Greece with εγκύκλιος παιδεία (enkyklios paideia)..
—LAED refers to a program of studies or a curriculum that includes subjects in the humanities and arts, viz. literature, philosophy, history languages, art, music as core subjects, in the social sciences, viz. sociology, economics, political science,, in mathematics and the physical sciences., viz. physics, chemistry, biology.
— In some cases, LAED does not refer to programs of studies, areas of learning or to subjects in a curriculum but to a philosophy of education. For example:
(a) The mission statement of Beloit College, a reputable liberal arts college in the United States, reads as follows: “Beloit College engages the intelligence, imagination and curiosity of its students, empowering them to live fulfilling lives marked by high achievement, personal responsibility and public contribution in a diverse society. Our emphasis on international and interdisciplinary perspectives, the integration of knowledge with experience, and close collaboration among peers, professors and staff equips our students to approach the complex problems of the world critically and thoughtfully”.
(b) The mission statement o Bowdoin College, another reputable liberal arts college in the United States, reads as follows: “A liberal arts education cultivates the mind and the imagination; encourages seeking after truth, meaning and beauty … it hones the capacity for critical thinking and open intellectual inquiry—the interest in asking questions, challenging assumptions, seeking answers and reaching conclusions supported by logic and evidence…Ultimately, a liberal education promotes independent thinking, individual action, and social responsibility”.
II–The Knowledge Cosmopolis of globalization: A polymorphous and multifaceted cosmos
The Knowledge Cosmopolis that is unfolding before us, as we enter the third millennium, is a polymorphous and polyfaceted cosmos. An illuminating conception of the new cosmos is that of the Spanish sociologist Manuel Castells who wrote:
“A new world is taking shape at this turn of the millennium. It originated in the historical coincidence, around the late 1960s and mid-1970s, of three independent processes: the information revolution; the economic crisis of both capitalism and statism, and their subsequent restructuring; and the blooming of cultural social movements, such as libertarianism, human rights, feminism, and environmentalism. The interaction between these processes, and the reasons they triggered, brought into being a new dominant social structure, the network society; a new economy, the informational/global economy; and a new culture, the culture of real virtuality …[defined ] as a system in which reality itself (that is, people’s material/ symbolic existence) is fully immersed in a virtual image setting, in the world of make believe, in which symbols are not just metaphors, but comprise the actual experience” (Castells, 2000, pp. 367, 381).
Other conceptions of the Knowledge Cosmopolis have included the following:
–A neoliberal market capitalist system with all its politico-economic accoutrements, viz. liberalization of markets, privatization, shrinking of the welfare state (Kazamias, 2009).
–A “philistine empire” informed by a “philistine ethos”, and the “dumbing down of contemporary culture” (Furedi, 2004).
–A masculinized world of high technology and finances (Stromquist and Monkman, 2000).
—A market fundamentalist capitalist empire, more global in its reach than any previous empire (Soros, 1998).
–A “materialist and alarmed society” devoid of “spiritual energy of intellectual integrity, of aesthetic beauty and public virtue” (Abbs, 1994).
III–Education and knowledge in the dehumanized Knowledge Cosmopolis: The sacrifice of liberal arts humanistic paideia. Emphasis on competences (theoretical, practical, cognitive)
Such a Knowledge Cosmopolis, as the above , is a “dehumanized virtual dystopia”. It emphasizes: (a) education, training and instrumental rationality, not paideia (παιδεία), namely, the holistic cultivation of the mind and the soul , (b) techno-scientific knowledge base, not general liberal education (Allgemeine Bildung, culture generale), (c) cognitive, vocational and social skills that are readily assessed and constantly renewable; competitiveness, entrepreneurship, employability, innovation, creativity, productivity, accreditation; and (d) competences (theoretical, practical, cognitive) mostly instrumental. It is propped up by a techno-scientific epistemological paradigm of education, not Liberal Arts Education. It underemphasizes aesthetic knowledge, ethical dispositions and civic virtues, what I would call “paideia of the soul”, for the cultivation of “minds” and “souls”, the quintessential element of being a holistically educated democratic citizen and of a “happy/good life”, in Aristotle’s famous term, eudaimonia, that signifies the development of both “intellectual character” and “ethical character”, as well as what Martha Nussbaum, the American has called “cultivating humanity” and creating “human capabilities” (Nussbaum, 1997. Also see Kazamias, 2008 ). In the words of Peter Abbs, English poet and academic:
“We are living through a cultural catastrophe.., At the centre of our materialist and alarmed society there would seem to be a massive denial of spiritual energy, of intellectual integrity, of aesthetic beauty and public virtue…Everywhere, a low anxious pragmatism would seem to prevail… Education has been taken over by instrumentalism powers and its programme rewritten by instrumentalists and politicians…Education has lost any sense of transcendent ends…We have witnessed the political high jacking of education (by the Left as much as by the Right). But what we have not witnessed and now stands in desperate need of, is a philosophical analysis of educational questions of our time, especially in relationship to Socratic thinking and aesthetic experience” (Abbs, 1994, pp. 1-3).
In the dehumanized Knowledge Cosmopolis, educational institutions—schools and especially colleges and universities–are foreordained to emphasize techno-scientific knowledge, instrumental rationality and what Lyotard has called “performativity” (Lyotard, 1984), and underemphasize “humanistic knowledge” and “culture”. As Martha Nussbaun has noted: “The humanities and the arts are being cut away in both primary/secondary and college/university education, in virtually every nation of the world…Thirsty for national profit, nations, and their systems of education, are heedlessly discarding skills that are needed to keep democracies alive”(Nussbaum, 2010, p.2). From socio-cultural institutions, a main function of which has been a holistic education or paideia—intellectual, moral and civic– European and North American universities are being metamorphosed into sites for the production of mainly instrumental knowledge and techno-science, and for the acquisition of marketable skills (Aronowitz, 2000). The modern university is being transformed from a studium generale to, at best, a studium speciale and, at worst, a “knowledge factory”, where techno-scientific specialism and instrumentalism have supplanted and overshadowed “liberal education”, specifically the “liberal humanistic canon”, Bildung und Wissenschaft and paideia (Kazamias, 1997). According to Good, “The University no longer adheres to the central defining purpose of its liberal humanistic phase… it caters to, and tries to reconcile a plurality of interests: individuals want marketable skills, employers want suitably trained employees, and political and economic forces want their agendas and preferences represented” (Good, 2001). In such a transformation, their main mission of the universities becomes less the formation of a homo humanus and homo civilis type of citizen, and more the construction of a philistine homo economicus type, namely, the informed, efficient and skilled entrepreneur/ worker in the competitive global economic system. According to Bill Readings, the modern university “is a ruined institution” for it “has been stripped of its cultural mission”; it has been forced to abandon its historical cultural mission. Instead, it has become “a bureaucratic arm of the unipolar capitalist system” and “ensconced in consumer ideology…It is no longer called upon to train a citizen subject” (Readings, 1996, pp. 5, 14, 44-48, 74-75).
The liberal arts humanistic epistemic scope in the modern European university
The liberal arts humanistic epistemic scope, centered in paideia, pervaded the “Idea” of the modern European university, as developed in the post-Enlightenment epoch by the German neo-humanist Wilhelm. von Humboldt and the English Cardinal John Henry Newman.
Key concepts in the Humboldtian idea of the German neo-humanist university were: Bildung (the harmonious character development of man), Wissenschaft (scientific study), and Kultur (culture). In the case of the German neo-humanist knowledge tradition, the concept of Bildung is especially noteworthy. In Newman’s idea of a university, the object of study was not practical or useful”, i.e. “utilitarian knowledge”, but strictly educational and intellectual. For Newman, the university was a site for “liberal education” and the cultivation of “cultured gentlemen” with “philosophic habits of mind”. As Bill Readings elaborated in his The University in Ruins (1996) :
“Newman positions liberal education in opposition to practical knowledge and the principle of utility. Liberal education positions knowledge as its own end, against the mechanical specter of technology. The indirect pursuit of liberal philosophical education seeks general understanding and a sense of the unity of knowledge rather than particular useful knowledge. Liberal education is therefore proper to the University ‘as a place of education, [rather] than of instruction.’ The end of knowledge is not external to the University but is the immanent principle of ‘intellectual culture.’” (Readings, 1996, pp. 65-75).
As indicated above, a distinctive key concept in Von Humboldt’s idea of liberal education was Bildung. Bildung, according to the Dutch scholar Gert Biesta, refers to the cultivation of the inner life, that is of the human soul, the human mind and the human person; or, to be more precise, the person’s humanity” (Biesta ,2003. p. 82).
A significant “discontent” of globalization has been its effect on the epistemic content of education, especially on liberal humanistic paideia and more generally, on the liberal arts humanistic canon. An illustration of this idea or “sacrifice” is iconographically portrayed in a cartoon which appeared in the English newspaper The Times (August 22, 2000). The cartoon shows a young girl sitting on a sofa in front of a computer, and busily punching on the keyboard. By her side, there is a wastepaper basket with papers titled “history,” “religion,” and “theatre.” The caption below the picture reads: “History and culture? not now!”
The instrumentalist pressure on knowledge production in the contemporary university, and the corrosive effects on liberal culture, the arts and “the life of the mind” by the instrumentalist ethos of the market, and by pragmatic and philistine concerns, are discussed in another critique of contemporary educational institutions, including the universities of Europe and North America. In a provocative volume bearing the title, Where Have All Intellectuals Gone? Confronting 21st Century Philistinism (2004), the English sociologist Frank Furedi claims that “the philistine ethos…informs much of educational and cultural policy”, whereby the term “philistine” is defined as “a person deficient in liberal culture; one whose interests are material and commonplace” (Furedi, 2004, pp: 1,3). The institutions of higher learning, Furedi notes, treat as knowledge “every outcome of a learning experience,” adding that “Academia has accepted that subjective emotional insights and skill-based training should be labeled ‘knowledges’” (Furedi, 2004, p. 68). He characterized university life as “banal,” while real scholarship, namely, “the pursuit of excellence and truth, is frequently represented as a bizarre, self-indulgent and irrelevant pursuit” (Furedi. 2004, p: 2).
Furedi criticizes the conformism and passivity of to-day’s critical intellectuals. He urges that intellectuals should “reconstitute themselves through reclaiming the autonomy for which their predecessors fought in previous years.” And he concludes his critical diatribe with the following thought:
“There is very little we can do to force the elites to give up the instrumentalist and philistine world view. But we can wage a battle of ideas for the hearts and minds of the public. How we can do it is one of the key questions of our time” (Furedi, 2004, p. 156).
IV—Re-inventing Liberal Arts Education (LAED): Paideia of the soul and Socrates: The educational imperative in the Knowledge Cosmopolis
If, (a) the Knowledge Cosmopolis of globalization and the Information/Technological Knowledge Society (ITKS), as described above , can be said to be a “dehumanized virtual dystopia”, and a “philistine empire”(Furedi 2004), and (b) the cardinal purpose of education is the cultivation of minds and souls, and what M. Nussbaum has referred to as the “cultivation of humanity” and the creation of reflective “citizens of the world” (Nussbaum 1997), then, what can be done to save homo humanus from the dehumanizing consequences of globalization and the ITKS?
As a comparative historian of western educational thought and a humanist public intellectual (see European Education, vol. 50, no. 2), I maintain that in terms of knowledge/ areas of study and pedagogy , a re-conceptualized LAED would emphasize the humanities and the arts,– language, literature, , philosophy, history, music, art– and Socratic ψυχαγωγία (paideia/education of the soul) and παιδαγωγία (pedagogy/education of the child) for the cultivation of the mind, but more so of the soul/psyche.
Paideia of the soul: the importance of the humanities and the arts
As the staple of the epistemic content—the curriculum– of LAED , the humanities and the arts have the potential not only of developing cognitive skills and “forming minds” which are necessary qualities of being human. It has also the potential of cultivating the human soul, viz. the social, ethical, emotional and aesthetic attitudes, the skills, dispositions and virtues, and the character traits that are quintessentially human.
Tthe humanities and the arts represent different forms of knowledge and experience from techno-scientific studies and empirical social science. Elliot Eisner, an American educational philosopher, has argued that areas such as literature, music and art represent “aesthetic knowledge“ that is different from the more widely accepted “scientific knowledge“. Viewed this way, Eisner claims, “both artist and scientist create forms through which the world is viewed…both make qualitative jusdgments about the fit, the coherence, the economy, ’the rightness’ of the forms they create.“ (Eisner, 1985, pp. 26-30).
The epistemological, ethical, aesthetic and a fortiori humanizing potential of the study and teaching of literature—poetry, drama, novel, biography—in a democratic society, especially in the contemporary turbulent, uncertain, insecure and problematic world , has been eulogized by Louise Rosenblatt, American humanities scholar, in her Literature as Exploration (1995). Echoing Henry James, the province of literature, according to Rosenblatt, is the human experience, “everything that human beings have thought or felt and created.“ She explains: “The lyric poet utters all that the human heart can feel…The novelist displays the intricate web of human relationships with their hidden patterns of motive and emotion…The dramatist builds a dynamic structure out of the tensions and conflicts of intermingled human lives“. (Rosenblatt, 1995, pp. 5-6).
In the same vein as the above, Roger Scruton, an English philosopher, in his defence of “the culture of Western civilization, conceptualized as the art, literature, poetry, music, and philosophy through which Western civilization rose “to consciousness of itself“ and defined “its vision of the world“, argues that as “aesthetic knowledge“ or “knowing what to feel“, the teaching of Western culture “educates the emotions“ and “what to feel“. It cultivates the heart, which, in Scruton’s thinking, “is critical to moral education“. In his treatise Culture Counts: Faith and Feeling in a World Besieged, Scruton, has averred: “Unlike science, culture is not the repository of factual information or theoretical truth, nor is it a kind of training in skills, whether rhetorical or practical. Yet it is a source of knowledge: emotional knowledge, concerning what to do and what to feel. We transmit this knowledge through ideals and examples, through images, narratives, and symbols“ (Scruton, 2007, p.x).
Music, according to Peter Kalkavage, a musician and a teacher of music, “is the union of the rational and irrational, of order and feeling… ultimately, by shaping feeling, music shapes the whole human being” (Kalkavage, 2006, p.16). Likewise, according to Mikis Theodorakis, renowned Greek composer, art (techne) and music are the “food of the soul”. Music “considers itself as intellectual, ethical and psychic flourishing. Lyricism is Apollo and Dionysos combined, mind and soul, thought and feeling (Theodorakis , 1999. Also wee Tsourlaki, 2013, ). Yolanda Medina on Critical Aesthetic Pedagogy (2012): –Through the use of arts (dance, music, theater, visual arts), the object of this new method is “to infuse aesthetic experience into critical educational practices in order to enhance capabilities that are indispensable for students’ self and social empowerment.” Art, according to Plato and Aristotle, is a form of intellectual/spiritual education; it is a means of attaining perfection and internal/inner liberation and purification of the personality (catharsis.)
Paideia of the soul: aesthetic epistemology and aesthetic cognitivism
Aesthetic epistemology is not just concerned with knowledge about aesthetics and art but the ways in which we can gain knowledge though our experiences with art. What can we learn from fictional writers, dramatists and poets?
Fictional writers: Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird
Whilst we cannot gain knowledge from fiction nonetheless art works can get us to care about the truths they have regard to. It is one thing to know in the abstract that racism is bad, it is quite another to read the acclaimed To Kill a Mockingbird by the American novelist Harper Lee and be moved to care about its perniciousness ( Kieran, 2000)
Dramatists and poets: Shakespeare’s tragedy Othello and Constantine Cavafy’s poem Walls (Τείχη)
It is one thing to know in the abstract what jealousy is.; it is quite another to read or better still to see a performance of Shakespeare’s tragedy Othello,. It is one thing to know in the abstract about homosexuality; it is quite another to read Consantine. Cavafy’s, poem, Walls (Τα Τελιχη).
Socrates, classical Greek philosopher, accoucheur, physician of the Soul, “gadfly“ of the democratic polis of Athens: Socratic ψυχαγωγία (paideia of the soul) and παιδαγωγία (pedagogy)
The quintessential element of the Socratic philosophy–ψυχαγωγία (paideia of the soul) and παιδαγωγία (pedagogy)–is έλεγχοος/elenchos (questioning/examination/ dialectic). As Socrates himself,–“gadfly” of the Athenian polis, accoucheur, physician of the soul—declared in his apology at the trial, at which he was accused of impiety and of corrupting the youth and condemned to drink the hemlock:
“The unexamined life is not worth living for man/human being…I am a sort of gadfly, given to the democracy by the gods, and the democracy is a large, noble horse which is sluggish in its motions, and requires to be stung into life. Men of Athens, I honour and love you; but I shall obey God rather than you, and I shall never cease from the practice and teaching of philosophy, exhorting anyone whom I meet and saying to him: You, my friend—a citizen of the mighty and wise city of Athens—are you not ashamed of heaping up the greatest amount of money and honour and reputation, and caring so little about wisdom and truth and the greatest improvement of the Soul? And if the person with whom I am arguing, says: Yes, but I do care; then I do not leave him or let him go, but I proceed to interrogate and cross-examine him, and if I think that he has no virtue in him, but only says that he has, I reproach him with undervaluing the greater, and overvaluing the less” (Plato, Apology of Socrates).
The aim of the Socratic παιδαγωγία/pedagogy and the Socratic έλεγχος/examination is the “therapy”, the “catharsis/purification and the perfection of the soul. The aim is moral, to make men better men, to give them more of the highest virtue of a man The Socratic theory entails a pedagogy or teaching that emphasizes quest for truth, critical and consistent thinking, questioning, philosophizing, critical self-reflection and reasoning, exhortation/ elenchos/examination”.. The “therapy of the soul” is the endeavor towards wisdom and truth (phronesis and alethia). (also see Vlastos, 1971,, p.28).
In this essay, I have argued that the Knowledge Cosmopolis we live in is a “virtual dystopia”, a dehumanized materialized “philistine empire” informed by a “philistine ethos”. Higher education in the Knowledge Cosmopolis emphasizes instrumental rationality and techno-scientific knowledge, not liberal arts humanistic education/culture which has constituted a quintessential element of western liberal arts educational tradition. Colleges and universities are being metamorphosed into sites for the production of instrumental knowledge and techno-science (STEM) and for the acquisition of marketable skills.at the expense of humanistic knowledge and culture which traditionally have constituted the staple of Liberal Arts Education. Stated differently, they underemphasize paideia of the soul, namely, aesthetic knowledge, ethical dispositions and civic virtues.
What is needed in this dehumanized Knowledge Cosmopolis, I have argued further, is to reinvent Liberal Arts Education (LAED) —its aim, epistemic content (curriculum or areas of study), and pedagogy. The aim of a reinvented LAED should be the intellectual development or education of the mind and the cultivation of the soul (ψυχαγωγία) what I have called paideia of the soul. To refer to Aristotle’s famous aphorism “educating the mind without educating the soul is no education at all”. The educational imperative in the dehumanized Knowledge Cosmopolis, I have concluded, is a reinvented LAED that emphasizes paideia of the soul (ψυχαγωγία) —a liberal humanistic education that emphasizes aesthetic knowledge through the arts and the humanities–and Socratic pedagogy (παιδαγωγία/)–a critical pedagogy that emphasizes philosophizing, critical self-reflection and questioning (έλεγχος).
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